1) Identify and calculate different types of energy and their transformations (thermal, kinetic, potential, including magnetic and electrical potential energies) from one form to another in a system.
2) Investigate conduction, convection, and radiation as a mechanism for the transfer of thermal energy.
3) Use the principle of energy conservation and mathematical representations to quantify the change in energy of one component of a system when the energy that flows in and out of the system and the change in energy of the other components is known.
4) Assess the validity of the law of conservation of linear momentum (p=mv) by planning and constructing a controlled scientific investigation involving two objects moving in one-dimension.
5) Construct an argument based on qualitative and quantitative evidence that relates the change in temperature of a substance to its mass and heat energy added or removed from a system.
6) Define power and solve problems involving the rate of energy production or consumption (P = ΔE/Δt). Explain and predict changes in power consumption based on changes in energy demand or elapsed time. Investigate power consumption and power production systems in common use.
7) Investigate and evaluate the laws of thermodynamics and use them to describe internal energy, heat, and work.
8) Communicate scientific ideas to describe how forces at a distance are explained by fields (gravitational, electric, and magnetic) permeating space. Explain how energy is contained within the field and how the energy changes when the objects generating and interacting with the field change their relative positions.
9) Describe, compare, and diagrammatically represent both electric and magnetic fields. Qualitatively predict the motion of a charged particle in each type of field, but avoid situations where the two types of fields are combined in the same region of space. Restrict magnetic fields to those that are parallel or perpendicular to the path of a charged particle.
10) Develop a model (sketch, CAD drawing, etc.) of a resistor circuit or capacitor circuit and use it to illustrate the behavior of electrons, electrical charge, and energy transfer.
11) Investigate Ohm’s law (I=V/R) by conducting an experiment to determine the relationships between current and voltage, current and resistance, and voltage and resistance.
12) Apply the law of conservation of energy and charge to assess the validity of Kirchhoff’s loop and junction rules when algebraically solving problems involving multi-loop circuits.
13) Predict the energy stored by a capacitor and how charge flows among capacitors connected in series or parallel.
14) Recognize and communicate information about energy efficiency and/or inefficiency of machines used in everyday life.
15) Compare and contrast the process, design, and performance of numerous next-generation energy sources (hydropower, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biomass power, etc.).