1) Mathematically determine the enthalpy change for a given reaction using Hess’s Law, standard enthalpies of formation, or a given mass of a reactant.
2) Apply scientific principles and mathematical representations to predict if a chemical reaction is spontaneous using Gibb’s Free Energy, ΔG = ΔH – TΔS.
3) Apply scientific and engineering ideas to build, evaluate, and refine a fuel cell model (e.g., graphical representation or as a project) with specific design constraints.
4) Collect and use data from the synthesis or decomposition of a compound to confirm the conservation of matter and the law of definite proportions.
5) Use Coulomb’s law and patterns of valence electron configurations to explain trends in ionization energies and reactivity of pure elements.
6) Explain the relationships between potential energy, distance between approaching atoms, bond length, and bond energy using graphical representations.
7) Investigate and explain the energy changes in biological systems (such as the combustion of sugar and photosynthesis) both qualitatively and quantitatively.
8) Research pyrotechnics and use concepts in thermodynamics, stoichiometry, oxidation reduction, and kinetics to design and create a low intensity sparkler.